Ultrasonography of liver tumors involves two stages: detection and characterization. The specification of these data is important for staging liver tumors and prognosis. Tumor characterization is a complex process based on a sum of criteria leading towards tumor nature definition.
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The differential diagnosis of a mass in the liver is broad but can be easily narrowed down based on two factors that are usually known at the time of presentation: 1 suspected or proven chronic liver disease and 2 solid or cystic lesion. If the patient presents with sudden onset of severe right upper quadrant pain or sudden hypotension, then lesional bleeding and or rupture should be considered. Urgent imaging with contrast enhance CT is usually diagnostic and urgent angiography is the most effective first therapeutic approach.
Histological confirmation via a biopsy is still recommended. A core biopsy is preferable. Whist often benign, their malignant tendency generally leads to removal.
LABC is characterized by large breast tumors involving the skin or muscles of the chest wall and extensive involvement of the local lymph nodes. Therefore treatment involves combined modality including systemic chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy 23. Good local control and down-staging increase the possibility for surgery.
Benign tumours are made up of cells that are quite similar to normal cells. They will only cause a problem if they:. To start with, cancer cells stay within the body tissue from which they have developed — for example, the lining of the bladder or the breast ducts.
Sometimes calcifications indicate breast cancer, such as ductal carcinoma in situ DCISbut most calcifications result from noncancerous benign conditions. Products that contain radiopaque materials or metals, such as deodorants, creams or powders, may mimic calcifications on a mammogram, making it more difficult to interpret whether the calcifications are due to benign or cancerous changes. Because of this, skin products of any kind should not be worn during a mammogram.
Hepatic hemangiomas are benign vascular liver lesions. They are frequently diagnosed as an incidental finding on imaging, and most patients are asymptomatic. From a radiologic perspective, it is important to differentiate hemangiomas from hepatic malignancy. Hepatic hemangiomas are thought to be congenital in origin, non-neoplastic, and are almost always of the cavernous subtype.
A radiologist will look at your mammogram. Radiologists are doctors who diagnose diseases and injuries using imaging tests such as x-rays. When possible, the doctor reading your mammogram will compare it to your old mammograms.
Malignant and cardiovascular disorders are the top causes of mortality worldwide. This article reviews the main literature data and mechanisms linking hematologic malignancies and arterial stiffness, focusing on recent experimental and clinical results. Several links were found in hematologic malignancies between complete blood count and arterial stiffness. Chemotherapy, especially anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are the main known causes of arterial stiffness increase in hematologic malignancies.